Blog Feed

A Call for Stories

“Look at how a single candle can both defy and define the darkness.”

Anne Frank

CoexiStory exists because of the generosity of the people who share stories that bring small – but not insignificant – points of light to a world besieged by darkness. If you would like to contribute a write-up of anywhere from 1,500 to 2,000 words on any of the topics below, we’d be happy to consider it for publication on our site:

  • Stories to inspire peace that focus on people, relationships, places, and events
  • Insights from successful projects and campaigns by non-profit organizations, schools, governments, etc.
  • Articles discussing skills and values (e.g. critical thinking, empathy, conflict resolution) needed to attain peace and cohesion
  • Opinion pieces on current events, discussed from the lens of peace and coexistence

We presently accept only non-fiction works. We also prefer works that appeal to a large number of people, written informally and conversationally. For any pitches or proposals, send us a message at coexistory <at>

Love without limits: 3 interracial couples that changed history forever

“In the flush of love’s light, we dare be brave. And suddenly we see that love costs all we are, and will ever be. Yet it is only love which sets us free.”

— Maya Angelou

It is easy to look around the world, and find love in all its forms; from parent to child, from lover to lover, from friend to friend, and everything in between. It is even so commonplace that we sometimes forget that it is there. But for many throughout history, the simple and inalienable right to love wasn’t always so easy. Many of the joys we enjoy today are the products of long and hard-won battles—love included, and especially so. For many, love was an act of resistance.

Today, on Valentine’s Day, we’re going to explore the lives of couples with relationships so star-crossed and great that the odds could not shake them, relationships for which even history changed its course, thus proving that love always wins.

Continue reading “Love without limits: 3 interracial couples that changed history forever”

Understanding the xenophobic response to NCoV: A perspective in the Philippines

In Manila, Philippines, a young woman on her daily commute makes her way through the crowded train carefully. Nearly everyone’s eyes are on her; they scrutinize her face, her complexion, and her chinky eyes. She pretends she hasn’t noticed, but someone whispers a slur in her direction. 

Another young woman books a local ride-sharing app and gets asked if she is Chinese. She responds in her native Filipino to assuage the driver’s fears. Nothing about her name would have revealed any Chinese heritage, but she supposes it was her picture that the driver wound up examining.

A prestigious university in the same country releases a statement: all Chinese are required to undergo a two-week mandatory self-quarantine. It is not specified whether they mean just Chinese nationals, or anyone of Chinese heritage. Naturally, the policy is lambasted widely online for its discriminatory nature.

This case is not isolated to the Philippines, which unfortunately lies in close proximity to China. In France, the media has dubbed the outbreak, “The Yellow Peril.” In Italy, Chinese people have been spat on and ostracized regardless of whether they had been to China in the first place. In Singapore, Chinese nationals were evicted upon being quarantined.

To add to the deepening confusion and tension, there are many reports of social media propaganda coming to light as well, as anecdotes on social media now appear to have been copied and pasted across a multitude of social media accounts

Wuhan, China

But nowhere is the chaos worse than in Wuhan, China. The whole city of 11 million people has been under quarantine since January 23, 2020, and has suffered over 94,958 cases and 724 deaths from the novel coronavirus as of today. Many citizens and journalists have risked government persecution in an attempt to report on the situation in Wuhan, which has now gotten so bad that publicly criticizing the Chinese government’s response to the outbreak can result in an arrest. 

There are no victims worse off in the outbreak of the novel coronavirus more so than the people of China, but the panic and paranoia it has brought has, at best, inconvenienced anyone who vaguely looks East Asian; at worst, their lives have been ruined forever.

In the Philippines, the emergence of the virus comes at a particularly turbulent period in Filipino-Chinese relations. A long-running territorial dispute has come to a head, now that the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has occupied several territories that have been legally ruled by international courts to belong to the Philippines.

chinese navy
The PRC navy in the West Philippine Sea

The current administration has also prioritized projects and investments from the PRC, insofar as allowing certain infrastructure projects to bring in workers from China, displacing Filipino workers both in livelihood and in residence. 

These complex tensions have been building up for years and have reached a tipping point with the recent virus—not just in the Philippines, but in the world over. 

In other parts of the globe, tensions with Chinese nationals are fueled by the problematic enactment of the PRC’s trade and infrastructure project called the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the challenges this has posed to local jobs and economies. The misbehavior of several PRC tourists in different parts of the world have also been a cause of anger for locals looking to preserve and maintain the cleanliness and orderliness of tourist stops. Lastly, the influx of Chinese investments into foreign soils – particularly in real estate – have significantly raised prices, leading to situations in which locals are no longer able to afford their own homes or properties.

But it is in these political and social challenges that many have forgotten that Chinese nationals are victims too in all of this, doomed to experience the worst of this outbreak in these turbulent times. Beyond political and economic issues, hundreds of Chinese have lost loved ones, have had their families broken apart by travel bans and lockdowns, and have struggled to find strength with each difficult day. It is over these common strands of humanity that, perhaps, the Filipinos and the Chinese—along with the rest of the world—could find some empathy.

We could all stand to have a little bit more empathy. Sure, it is fair to expect appropriate action from one’s government; certainly, the enforcement of travel bans and borders is necessary; and, yes, we will all be a little safer if we separated ourselves from each other and from crowds. 

But none of this means that we should ever distance ourselves from our fellow man, from our fellow persons, and from that sense of community that benefits and protects us all. 

Six multi-cultural comedians who break borders with laughs

One of the most important ways a group of diverse and different people can come together in harmony is through the sharing of stories. In the shared experience of storytelling, laughter is one of the most powerful forces to unite anybody.
Stand-up comedy has evolved from just silly jokes and funny faces on a stage, to a platform for sharing ideas and exchanging views. Modern stand-up comedians now recognize the importance of the stage, the value of a well-placed joke, and the strength of teaching a large group of people to laugh at themselves.

In this list, we tackled several stand-up comedians from diverse backgrounds, and how their brands of comedy have transcended and broken barriers through the unavoidable power of laughter. Continue reading “Six multi-cultural comedians who break borders with laughs”

An Oasis of Peace and Progress in the Middle East: The Legacy of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman

The late Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said

The late Sultan came to rule Oman in 1970, following his father, the Sultan Said bin Taimur, whose rule had nearly brought the citizens of the then-known Muscat and Oman to their knees. Muscat and Oman had tended towards intense isolationism and an aversion to modernization and progress.

While already under the influence of the British Empire (to the point where the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman could have been called a de facto colony), Sultan Said bin Taimur’s increasingly incompetent rule not only suppressed technological advancement at every turn, but had also fallen to corruption.

Two major rebellions had sprung up: the Jebel Akhdar rebellion, and the Dhofar rebellion. As a result, the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman began to rely more and more on British military intervention. Having grown paranoid from an assassination attempt, Sultan Said bin Taimur refused to leave the royal palace. Everyone—the citizens, the British Empire, and his own family—had grown tired of his incompetence. Continue reading “An Oasis of Peace and Progress in the Middle East: The Legacy of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman”

Pope Francis on Embracing Diversity: “The Future is Not Monochrome”

In a visit to Japan from November 23-26, 2019, the leader of the global Catholic Church gave an astounding speech on a topic that touches on critical issues such as immigration, political polarization, violent extremism and more: diversity.

Speaking to an audience of young people at the Cathedral of Holy Mary in Tokyo on the 3rd day of his visit, Pope Francis did not mince words in calling on youth to embrace diversity, saying that humans are not “mass-produced on an assembly line”:

“As I look out at you, I can see the cultural and religious diversity of the young people living in Japan today, and also something of the beauty that your generation holds for the future. Your friendship with one another and your presence here remind everyone that the future is not monochrome; if we are courageous, we can contemplate it in all the variety and diversity of what each individual person has to offer. How much our human family needs to learn to live together in harmony and peace, without all of us having to be the same! We were not mass-produced on an assembly line. Each one comes from the love of their parents and their family, and so each of us is different, each one has a story to share. We need to grow in fraternity, in concern for others and respect for different experiences and points of view!”

Pope Francis, history’s first Jesuit pope, shared that this “culture of encounter” is possible and that “young people have the special sensitivity needed to carry it forward.”

In the same speech, the 82-year old pope made sure he connected with his young Japanese audience by touching on familiar subjects: bullying (which he called an “epidemic”), discrimination, selfies, and the pressures of a “frenetic” society ruled by competition and productivity.

On bullying, he shared, “The cruellest thing about bullying is that it attacks our self-confidence at the very time when we most need the ability to accept ourselves and to confront new challenges in life. Sometimes, victims of bullying even blame themselves for being “easy” targets. They can feel like failures, weak and worthless, and end up in very tragic situations: “If only I were different…” Yet paradoxically, it is the bullies – those who carry out bullying – who are the truly weak ones, for they think that they can affirm their own identity by hurting others. Sometimes they strike out at anyone they think is different, who represents something they find threatening. Deep down, bullies are afraid, and they cover their fear by a show of strength.”

With that, he challenged young people to “stand up” to bullying and urged them to work against “fear, division, and conflict” despite differences. The Catholic Church, after all, is built upon the legacy of Jesus Christ who is an outsider himself.

“…looking to the life of Jesus gives us consolation, for Jesus himself knew what it was to be despised and rejected – even to the point of being crucified. He knew too what it was to be a stranger, a migrant, someone who was “different”. In a sense… Jesus was the ultimate “outsider”.”

To do so, Pope Francis reiterated the importance of fostering understanding and empathy:

“…this involves developing a very important but underestimated quality: the ability to learn to make time for others, to listen to them, to share with them, to understand them. Only then can we open our experiences and our problems to a love that can change us and start to change the world around us. Unless we are generous in spending time with others, in “wasting” time with them, we will waste time on many things that, at the end of the day, leave us empty and confused.”

The pope concluded his speech by leaving his own comment on “selfie culture” as a manifestation of the evils of modern society.

“…in order to grow, to discover our own identity, our own goodness and our own inner beauty, we cannot look at ourselves in a mirror. We have invented all sorts of gadgets, but we still can’t take selfies of the soul. Thank God! Because to be happy, we need to ask others to help us, to have the photo taken by someone else. We need to go out of ourselves towards others, especially those most in need…

The topic of diversity and peace was a central theme in Pope Francis’ visit to Japan this year. Aside from his dialog with young people, he visited a Peace Memorial, refugees, and the Atomic Bomb Hypocenter Park in Nagasaki.

In an emotional speech at the atomic bomb memorial, the pope waxed poetic on the dangers of nuclear weaponry:

“One of the deepest longings of the human heart is for security, peace and stability. The possession of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction is not the answer to this desire; indeed they seem always to thwart it. Our world is marked by a perverse dichotomy that tries to defend and ensure stability and peace through a false sense of security sustained by a mentality of fear and mistrust, one that ends up poisoning relationships between peoples and obstructing any form of dialogue.

“Peace and international stability are incompatible with attempts to build upon the fear of mutual destruction or the threat of total annihilation. They can be achieved only on the basis of a global ethic of solidarity and cooperation in the service of a future shaped by interdependence and shared responsibility in the whole human family.”

As the world is continually threatened by war, divisiveness, and violence, one thing is clear: we need more global leaders actively calling for peace and embracing diversity. To assist in the concrete actions and reforms needed to promote peace, words are needed, too.

Words – those that urge for kindness, empathy, understanding, and acceptance – can change the mindset of millions of people – especially the young.

Heavyweights Weigh In: What is Peace?

There are few words more loaded, disputed, and colorful as peace. The word likely conjures different interpretations and imageries in each of us, but what do well-known historical figures think?

Here, we let them weigh in on what peace is in their own words.

“Peace does not mean an absence of conflicts; differences will always be there. Peace means solving these differences through peaceful means; through dialogue, education, knowledge; and through humane ways.”

Dalai Lama XIV

“One day we must come to see that peace is not merely a distant goal we seek, but that it is a means by which we arrive at that goal. We must pursue peaceful ends through peaceful means.”

Martin Luther King, Jr., American Civil Rights Leader

“Peace is a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding old barriers, quietly building new structures.”

John F. Kennedy, 35th US President

“We seek peace, knowing that peace is the climate of freedom.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th US President

“Peace is the only battle worth waging.”

Albert Camus, French Philosopher & Writer

“Peace is our gift to each other.”

Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor, Writer & Political Activist

“Establishing lasting peace is the work of education; all politics can do is keep us out of war.”

Maria Montessori, Italian Educator & Physician

“Nothing is more precious than peace. Peace is the most basic starting point for the advancement of humankind.”

Daisaku Ikeda, Japanese Buddhist Philosopher & Educator

The Most Important Topic on Earth is World Peace, Says JFK

56 years ago, former US President John F. Kennedy delivered a commencement speech at the American University, Washington, D.C. that would go on to become one of the most iconic speeches on the topic of peace.

Though written and delivered more than half a century ago with a different whirlwind of global affairs setting the stage then for JFK’s message, the speech is still more relevant than ever. The full text appears below.

President Anderson, members of the faculty, board of trustees, distinguished guests, my old colleague, Senator Bob Byrd, who has earned his degree through many years of attending night law school, while I am earning mine in the next 30 minutes, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen:

It is with great pride that I participate in this ceremony of the American University, sponsored by the Methodist Church, founded by Bishop John Fletcher Hurst, and first opened by President Woodrow Wilson in 1914. This is a young and growing university, but it has already fulfilled Bishop Hurst’s enlightened hope for the study of history and public affairs in a city devoted to the making of history and the conduct of the public’s business. By sponsoring this institution of higher learning for all who wish to learn, whatever their color or their creed, the Methodists of this area and the Nation deserve the Nation’s thanks, and I commend all those who are today graduating.

Professor Woodrow Wilson once said that every man sent out from a university should be a man of his nation as well as a man of his time, and I am confident that the men and women who carry the honor of graduating from this institution will continue to give from their lives, from their talents, a high measure of public service and public support.

“There are few earthly things more beautiful than a university,” wrote John Masefield in his tribute to English universities – and his words are equally true today. He did not refer to spires and towers, to campus greens and ivied walls. He admired the splendid beauty of the university, he said, because it was “a place where those who hate ignorance may strive to know, where those who perceive truth may strive to make others see.”

I have, therefore, chosen this time and this place to discuss a topic on which ignorance too often abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived – yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace.

What kind of peace do I mean? What kind of peace do we seek? Not a Pax Americana enforced on the world by American weapons of war. Not the peace of the grave or the security of the slave. I am talking about genuine peace, the kind of peace that makes life on earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children – not merely peace for Americans but peace for all men and women – not merely peace in our time but peace for all time.

I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age when great powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied air forces in the Second World War. It makes no sense in an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and water and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn.

Today the expenditure of billions of dollars every year on weapons acquired for the purpose of making sure we never need to use them is essential to keeping the peace. But surely the acquisition of such idle stockpiles – which can only destroy and never create – is not the only, much less the most efficient, means of assuring peace.

I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men. I realize that the pursuit of peace is not as dramatic as the pursuit of war – and frequently the words of the pursuer fall on deaf ears. But we have no more urgent task.

Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament – and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them do it. But I also believe that we must reexamine our own attitude – as individuals and as a Nation – for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward – by examining his own attitude toward the possibilities of peace, toward the Soviet Union, toward the course of the cold war and toward freedom and peace here at home.

First: Let us examine our attitude toward peace itself. Too many of us think it is impossible. Too many think it unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable – that mankind is doomed – that we are gripped by forces we cannot control. We need not accept that view. Our problems are manmade – therefore, they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. Man’s reason and spirit have often solved the seemingly unsolvable – and we believe they can do it again.

I am not referring to the absolute, infinite concept of peace and good will of which some fantasies and fanatics dream. I do not deny the value of hopes and dreams but we merely invite discouragement and incredulity by making that our only and immediate goal.

Let us focus instead on a more practical, more attainable peace – based not on a sudden revolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in human institutions – on a series of concrete actions and effective agreements which are in the interest of all concerned. There is no single, simple key to this peace – no grand or magic formula to be adopted by one or two powers. Genuine peace must be the product of many nations, the sum of many acts. It must be dynamic, not static, changing to meet the challenge of each new generation. For peace is a process – a way of solving problems.

With such a peace, there will still be quarrels and conflicting interests, as there are within families and nations. World peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor – it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance, submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement. And history teaches us that enmities between nations, as between individuals, do not last forever. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem, the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbors.

So let us persevere. Peace need not be impracticable, and war need not be inevitable. By defining our goal more clearly, by making it seem more manageable and less remote, we can help all peoples to see it, to draw hope from it, and to move irresistibly toward it.

Second: Let us reexamine our attitude toward the Soviet Union. It is discouraging to think that their leaders may actually believe what their propagandists write. It is discouraging to read a recent authoritative Soviet text on Military Strategy and find, on page after page, wholly baseless and incredible claims – such as the allegation that “American imperialist circles are preparing to unleash different types of wars . . . that there is a very real threat of a preventive war being unleashed by American imperialists against the Soviet Union . . . [and that] the political aims of the American imperialists are to enslave economically and politically the European and other capitalist countries . . . [and] to achieve world domination . . . by means of aggressive wars.”

Truly, as it was written long ago: “The wicked flee when no man pursueth.” Yet it is sad to read these Soviet statements – to realize the extent of the gulf between us. But it is also a warning – a warning to the American people not to fall into the same trap as the Soviets, not to see only a distorted and desperate view of the other side, not to see conflict as inevitable, accommodation as impossible, and communication as nothing more than an exchange of threats.

No government or social system is so evil that its people must be considered as lacking in virtue. As Americans, we find communism profoundly repugnant as a negation of personal freedom and dignity. But we can still hail the Russian people for their many achievements – in science and space, in economic and industrial growth, in culture and in acts of courage.

Among the many traits the peoples of our two countries have in common, none is stronger than our mutual abhorrence of war. Almost unique among the major world powers, we have never been at war with each other. And no nation in the history of battle ever suffered more than the Soviet Union suffered in the course of the Second World War. At least 20 million lost their lives. Countless millions of homes and farms were burned or sacked. A third of the nation’s territory, including nearly two thirds of its industrial base, was turned into a wasteland – a loss equivalent to the devastation of this country east of Chicago.

Today, should total war ever break out again – no matter how – our two countries would become the primary targets. It is an ironic but accurate fact that the two strongest powers are the two in the most danger of devastation. All we have built, all we have worked for, would be destroyed in the first 24 hours. And even in the cold war, which brings burdens and dangers to so many nations, including this Nation’s closest allies – our two countries bear the heaviest burdens. For we are both devoting massive sums of money to weapons that could be better devoted to combating ignorance, poverty, and disease. We are both caught up in a vicious and dangerous cycle in which suspicion on one side breeds suspicion on the other, and new weapons beget counterweapons.

In short, both the United States and its allies, and the Soviet Union and its allies, have a mutually deep interest in a just and genuine peace and in halting the arms race. Agreements to this end are in the interests of the Soviet Union as well as ours – and even the most hostile nations can be relied upon to accept and keep those treaty obligations, and only those treaty obligations, which are in their own interest.

So, let us not be blind to our differences – but let us also direct attention to our common interests and to the means by which those differences can be resolved. And if we cannot end now our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. For, in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future. And we are all mortal.

Third: Let us reexamine our attitude toward the cold war, remembering that we are not engaged in a debate, seeking to pile up debating points. We are not here distributing blame or pointing the finger of judgment. We must deal with the world as it is, and not as it might have been had the history of the last 18 years been different.

We must, therefore, persevere in the search for peace in the hope that constructive changes within the Communist bloc might bring within reach solutions which now seem beyond us. We must conduct our affairs in such a way that it becomes in the Communists’ interest to agree on a genuine peace. Above all, while defending our own vital interests, nuclear powers must avert those confrontations which bring an adversary to a choice of either a humiliating retreat or a nuclear war. To adopt that kind of course in the nuclear age would be evidence only of the bankruptcy of our policy – or of a collective death-wish for the world.

To secure these ends, America’s weapons are nonprovocative, carefully controlled, designed to deter, and capable of selective use. Our military forces are committed to peace and disciplined in self-restraint. Our diplomats are instructed to avoid unnecessary irritants and purely rhetorical hostility.

For we can seek a relaxation of tension without relaxing our guard. And, for our part, we do not need to use threats to prove that we are resolute. We do not need to jam foreign broadcasts out of fear our faith will be eroded. We are unwilling to impose our system on any unwilling people – but we are willing and able to engage in peaceful competition with any people on earth.

Meanwhile, we seek to strengthen the United Nations, to help solve its financial problems, to make it a more effective instrument for peace, to develop it into a genuine world security system – a system capable of resolving disputes on the basis of law, of insuring the security of the large and the small, and of creating conditions under which arms can finally be abolished.

At the same time we seek to keep peace inside the non-Communist world, where many nations, all of them our friends, are divided over issues which weaken Western unity, which invite Communist intervention or which threaten to erupt into war. Our efforts in West New Guinea, in the Congo, in the Middle East, and in the Indian subcontinent, have been persistent and patient despite criticism from both sides. We have also tried to set an example for others – by seeking to adjust small but significant differences with our own closest neighbors in Mexico and in Canada.

Speaking of other nations, I wish to make one point clear. We are bound to many nations by alliances. Those alliances exist because our concern and theirs substantially overlap. Our commitment to defend Western Europe and West Berlin, for example, stands undiminished because of the identity of our vital interests. The United States will make no deal with the Soviet Union at the expense of other nations and other peoples, not merely because they are our partners, but also because their interests and ours converge

Our interests converge, however, not only in defending the frontiers of freedom, but in pursuing the paths of peace. It is our hope – and the purpose of allied policies – to convince the Soviet Union that she, too, should let each nation choose its own future, so long as that choice does not interfere with the choices of others. The Communist drive to impose their political and economic system on others is the primary cause of world tension today. For there can be no doubt that, if all nations could refrain from interfering in the self-determination of others, the peace would be much more assured.

This will require a new effort to achieve world law – a new context for world discussions. It will require increased understanding between the Soviets and ourselves. And increased understanding will require increased contact and communication. One step in this direction is the proposed arrangement for a direct line between Moscow and Washington, to avoid on each side the dangerous delays, misunderstandings, and misreadings of the other’s actions which might occur at a time of crisis.

We have also been talking in Geneva about the other first-step measures of arms control designed to limit the intensity of the arms race and to reduce the risks of accidental war. Our primary long range interest in Geneva, however, is general and complete disarmament – designed to take place by stages, permitting parallel political developments to build the new institutions of peace which would take the place of arms. The pursuit of disarmament has been an effort of this Government since the 1920’s. It has been urgently sought by the past three administrations. And however dim the prospects may be today, we intend to continue this effort – to continue it in order that all countries, including our own, can better grasp what the problems and possibilities of disarmament are.

The one major area of these negotiations where the end is in sight, yet where a fresh start is badly needed, is in a treaty to outlaw nuclear tests. The conclusion of such a treaty, so near and yet so far, would check the spiraling arms race in one of its most dangerous areas. It would place the nuclear powers in a position to deal more effectively with one of the greatest hazards which man faces in 1963, the further spread of nuclear arms. It would increase our security – it would decrease the prospects of war. Surely this goal is sufficiently important to require our steady pursuit, yielding neither to the temptation to give up the whole effort nor the temptation to give up our insistence on vital and responsible safeguards.

I am taking this opportunity, therefore, to announce two important decisions in this regard.

First: Chairman Khrushchev, Prime Minister Macmillan, and I have agreed that high-level discussions will shortly begin in Moscow looking toward early agreement on a comprehensive test ban treaty. Our hopes must be tempered with the caution of history – but with our hopes go the hopes of all mankind.

Second: To make clear our good faith and solemn convictions on the matter, I now declare that the United States does not propose to conduct nuclear tests in the atmosphere so long as other states do not do so. We will not be the first to resume. Such a declaration is no substitute for a formal binding treaty, but I hope it will help us achieve it.

Finally, my fellow Americans, let us examine our attitude toward peace and freedom here at home. The quality and spirit of our own society must justify and support our efforts abroad. We must show it in the dedication of our own lives – as many of you who are graduating today will have a unique opportunity to do, by serving without pay in the Peace Corps abroad or in the proposed National Service Corps here at home.

But wherever we are, we must all, in our daily lives, live up to the age-old faith that peace and freedom walk together. In too many of our cities today, the peace is not secure because the freedom is incomplete.

It is the responsibility of the executive branch at all levels of government – local, state, and national – to provide and protect that freedom for all of our citizens by all means within their authority. It is the responsibility of the legislative branch at all levels, wherever that authority is not now adequate, to make it adequate. And it is the responsibility of all citizens in all sections of this country to respect the rights of all others and to respect the law of the land.

All this is not unrelated to world peace. “When a man’s ways please the Lord,” the Scriptures tell us, “he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him.” And is not peace, in the last analysis, basically a matter of human rights – the right to live out our lives without fear of devastation – the right to breathe air as nature provided it – the right of future generations to a healthy existence?

While we proceed to safeguard our national interests, let us also safeguard human interests. And the elimination of war and arms is clearly in the interest of both. No treaty, however much it may be to the advantage of all, however tightly it may be worded, can provide absolute security against the risks of deception and evasion. But it can – if it is sufficiently effective in its enforcement and if it is sufficiently in the interests of its signers – offer far more security and far fewer risks than an unabated, uncontrolled, unpredictable arms race.

The United States, as the world knows, will never start a war. We do not want a war. We do not now expect a war. This generation of Americans has already had enough – more than enough – of war and hate and oppression. We shall be prepared if others wish it. We shall be alert to try to stop it. But we shall also do our part to build a world of peace where the weak are safe and the strong are just. We are not helpless before that task or hopeless of its success. Confident and unafraid, we labor on – not toward a strategy of annihilation but toward a strategy of peace.